Jul 20, 2022

Writing PostgreSQL extension in Rust With pgx

Estimated Reading Time: 8 minutes (1689 words)

Recently, I came across how to write a PostgreSQL extension in Rust with pgx from this article by pganalyze. I decided to play around with it. It turns out to be very straightforward to learn and write a PostgreSQL extension!

pgx does make it easy to write a PostgreSQL extensions in Rust! All the code of this post are written in an evening (a couple of hours) as a first timer learning about PostgreSQL extension and pgx.

In this post, we are going to first walk through the basic of using pgx to write a PostgreSQL extension. Then, we are going to implement some custom string manipulation function such as to_title and emojify and expose it to PostgreSQL to be used.

The posts will be structured as:

Please skip to the last 2 sections if you are already well versed with pgx or prefer to follow the official README.

All the codes are available in this GitHub repository.

Getting Started

pgx have a great README and examples in their repository, so getting started is just as easy as following their instructions in the README. At the time of this writing, here are the steps needed:

# Install cargo-pgx to make developing PostgreSQL extension
# with pgx easily.

# You'll be going to use it the most during your development
# and testing.
cargo install cargo-pgx

# Initialize pgx, so it installed the dependencies it needed.
# You'll only need to run it once.
cargo pgx init

With this, you’re all setup to write your first PostgreSQL extension in Rust.

Your First Extension

Let’s write a Hello World example as usual. With pgx, we can use the following command to generate our PostgreSQL extension project:

$ cargo pgx new hello_world

Let’s take a look at the generated src/

use pgx::*;


fn hello_hello_world() -> &'static str {
    "Hello, hello_world"

#[cfg(any(test, feature = "pg_test"))]
mod tests {
    use pgx::*;

    fn test_hello_hello_world() {
        assert_eq!("Hello, hello_world", crate::hello_hello_world());


pub mod pg_test {
    pub fn setup(_options: Vec<&str>) {
        // perform one-off initialization when the pg_test framework starts

    pub fn postgresql_conf_options() -> Vec<&'static str> {
        // return any postgresql.conf settings that are required for your tests

We can see that the file contain three code sections: the implementation, tests and tests setup. For the rest of our post, we will mainly focus on writing the implementations and tests.

And in fact, our first extension of Hello World is done. Let’s run it!

cargo pgx run pg14

Then, before we run our hello_hello_world function, we will need to load the extension first using CREATE EXTENSION command:

hello_world=# CREATE EXTENSION hello_world;

hello_world=# select hello_hello_world();
 Hello, hello_world

Our hello world is done!

to_title function

Well, that’s kind of like cheating. So let’s write our own extension for real. We’ll start with something simple, a to_title function, which convert a string to title case.

In reality, you might not need this and should just transform it at the application layer.

Writing a custom PostgreSQL function is straightforward. It’s similar to writing your usual Rust function with some caveats. For example, you’ll have to ensure that the arguments and return type of the function is correct. Be sure to check out the documentation of pgx or here.

Enough of intro, let’s write some code:

fn to_title(string: &str) -> String {

Every function we want to expose to PostgreSQL will need to be annotated with the #[pg_extern]. Here we take in a &str (which are zero-copy) and return a String for our function.

The actual implementation of to_title is as followed:

    .split(' ')
    .map(|word| {
            .map(|(i, c)| {
                if i == 0 {
                } else {
    .join(" ")

Hopefully the code is self explainable:

  1. We first split the input by space. Alternatively, we could take in the splitter character from the user as well.
  2. Map through each word, for each character of the word, we either covert it to uppercase or lowercase depending on the position, and finally we collect it to a String.
  3. Then, collect all the transformed word into a Vec<String> and join it back with space again.

There’s probably a more performant and efficient implementation. Do let me know if you managed to come up with a better implementation.

Let’s also write a simple test case to verify our implementation:

Under mod tests:

fn test_to_title() {
    assert_eq!("My Cool Extension", crate::to_title("my cool extension"));

Now, let’s test it by running cargo test:

running 2 tests
building extension with features ` pg_test`
"cargo" "build" "--features" " pg_test" "--message-format=json-render-diagnostics"
   Compiling hello_world v0.0.0 (/Users/kai/workspace/rust/extension/hello_world)
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 4.11s

installing extension
     Copying control file to /Users/kai/.pgx/13.7/pgx-install/share/postgresql/extension/hello_world.control
     Copying shared library to /Users/kai/.pgx/13.7/pgx-install/lib/postgresql/
 Discovering SQL entities
  Discovered 5 SQL entities: 1 schemas (1 unique), 4 functions, 0 types, 0 enums, 0 sqls, 0 ords, 0 hashes, 0 aggregates
     Writing SQL entities to /Users/kai/.pgx/13.7/pgx-install/share/postgresql/extension/hello_world--0.0.0.sql
    Finished installing hello_world
test tests::pg_test_to_title ... ok
test tests::pg_test_hello_hello_world ... ok

test result: ok. 2 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out; finished in 5.55s

Stopping Postgres

Notice that, we are using the #[pg_test] annotations instead of #[test]. This allows pgx to run the unit test in-process within PostgreSQL. Hence, that explain the Stoping Postgres text in the end of our output.

You’ll notice that pgx also help you to install the extension by coping some files that are required by PostgreSQL for an extension.

If you change the #[pg_test] to #[test], the test would be run as normal Rust unit test:

running 2 tests
test tests::test_to_title ... ok # <-- Rust test get run first

building extension with features ` pg_test`

# ... running other test in Postgres

Stopping Postgres

If you ever faced a weird issue where your tests failed even after you fixed the implementation, try to run cargo clean and rerun the tests.

It seems like there’s some bug where if a test failed at first, the subsequent tests will continue to fail. Personally, I faced it in my machine, but it could be just me.

Now, let’s run it in our PostgreSQL:

cargo pgx run pg14

Once you have the psql session running, you can check if your extension and function is available by running the following command: \dx and \df:

# List all the installed extensions

                   List of installed extensions
    Name     | Version |   Schema   |         Description
 hello_world | 0.0.0   | public     | hello_world:  Created by pgx
 plpgsql     | 1.0     | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
(2 rows)

# List all functions

                             List of functions
 Schema |       Name        | Result data type | Argument data types | Type
 public | hello_hello_world | text             |                     | func
(1 row)

You’ll notice that our new function is not added, so we’ll have to reload our extension by dropping it and creating it again:

drop extension hello_world; create extension hello_world;

Running \df again should show you the following:

                             List of functions
 Schema |       Name        | Result data type | Argument data types | Type
 public | hello_hello_world | text             |                     | func
 public | to_title          | text             | string text         | func
(2 rows)

Now we can finally test out our to_title function:

select to_title('this is so cool');

 This Is So Cool
(1 row)

With pgx, writing a PostgreSQL custom function is really like writing your day to day Rust function.

The to_title function is too simple to write, let’s try something slightly more complex. Something that need an external crate.

emojify function

Next, let’s write a emojify function that convert the :shortcode: in a string to emoji. For example:

pgx is so cool :100:pgx is so cool 💯

It should also handle multiple emoji seamlessly.

In reality, you might not need this as well since you could probably convert it in the frontend…

It turns out that in Rust, we have the amazing emojis crate that we can use to implement our function. The emojis crate provide a get_by_shortcode function to get the emoji by GitHub shortcode.

If you are using the Rust version 1.62.0 and above, you can add the crate by using cargo add:

cargo add emojis

Alternatively, add the following to your Cargo.toml:

emojis = "0.4.0"

With that, implementing the emojify function will be pretty straightforward:

fn emojify(string: &str) -> String {
        .split(' ')
        .map(|word| {
            let chars = word.chars().collect::<Vec<char>>();
            match &chars[..] {
                [':', shortcode @ .., ':'] => {
                _ => word.to_string(),
        .join(" ")

As usual, we take in &str and return String for our function. In the function, we basically:

  1. Split the string by space.
  2. Map through each word to check if they are in the format of :shortcode:. We are using slice pattern matching here to match the string, so we’ll need to convert it into a Vec<char> first.
  3. If the pattern matched, we get the shortcode by calling emojis function and then convert it to String. Else, we return the word unmodified.
  4. Lastly, we collect the words into Vec<String> and then join it back with space.

As usual, let’s write a test as well for our function:

fn test_emojify() {
    assert_eq!("pgx is so cool 💯", crate::emojify("pgx is so cool :100:"));
        "multiple emojis: 💯 👍",
        crate::emojify("multiple emojis: :100: :+1:")

Running cargo test should show that all of your tests have passed successfully. Now, let’s run it in PostgreSQL:

cargo pgx run pg14

As usual, running \df will show that our new emojify function is not loaded, so let’s reload our extension:

drop extension hello_world; create extension hello_world;

Then we can test it by:

hello_world=# select emojify('pgx is so cool :100: :+1: :heart:');
 pgx is so cool 💯 👍 ❤️
(1 row)

Yet another PostgreSQL function has been written in Rust.

Notice that here, we didn’t implement a proper handling. So emojify a string contain an invalid shortcode will throw an error as shown below:

hello_world=# select emojify('pgx is so cool :100: :+1: :love:');
ERROR:  called `Option::unwrap()` on a `None` value
CONTEXT:  src/

Wrap Up

These are not the only thing we can do with pgx and PostgreSQL extension, if you would like to learn more, feel free to look into the pgx examples and articles section. Some examples includes a link to a Twitch video highlight. For instance, I find the “Bad Postgres Extension Ideas” with PGX highlight to be fascinating!

I haven’t tried out writing my own PostgreSQL aggregates, if you want to learn more about it, I would suggest the following resources:

The first article by Timescale is really recommended for someone who are new to the internals of PostgreSQL aggregates, and the second article covers some basic of pgx, PostgreSQL aggregates and ending up with writing aggregates in Rust with pgx.

Hopefully, you learn a thing or two from this post!